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Essay specific features

 

Issue:

Psychology

 

Written by:

Lori L

 

Date added:

August 25, 2017

 

Level:

University

 

Grade:

A

 

No of pages / words:

2 / 348

 

Was viewed:

3937 times

 

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Essay content:

Problem solving: overcoming some obstacles in order to answer a question or achieve a goal Four phases - Understanding - Generating hypotheses - Testing hypotheses - Checking results Strategies - Used in the generating hypotheses stage - Algorithm Algorithm: a mechanical repetitive procedure for solving a problem - Guarantee a correct solution to the problem - Heuristics Heuristics: strategies for solving a problem or for guiding an investigation - Narrow the range of options we have to consider when trying to solve a problem Types of Problems - Inducing Structure - Try and discover relations among parts of the problem - Transformation - Involve carrying out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal - Problems of arrangement - Involve arranging the parts of the problem in such a way that it satisfies some criterion - Often solved with a burst of insight Insight: the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error - Insight Problems - Problem solution suddenly enters our mind - Immediately realize the solution to the problem is correct - Occurs suddenly - Novel approach to the problem has been taken - Novel interpretation of the problem has been made - Non-insight problem - Solve gradually - Using reasoning skills and a routine set of procedures - Metcalf & Wiebe (1987) - Insight problems - Algebra problems - "Warmth" ratings - Results - Algebra problems - Warmth ratings gradually grew until solution - Insight problems - No increase in warmth ratings until the person solved the problem in a flash of insight Barriers to Problem Solving - Involve assumptions affecting problem solving Fixation: an impediment to problem solving - Perceptual fixation - Involves perceptual (visual/spatial) assumptions about the problem domain that blocks ability to reach a solution - Mental Set - Get stuck on a set of rules to solve the problem - Use them even when the set of rules will prevent the solution or there is an easier solution - Functional Fixation - Getting stuck on a particular use for an object
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Problem solving: overcoming some obstacles in order to answer a question or achieve a goal Four phases - Understanding - Generating hypotheses - Testing hypotheses - Checking results Strategies - Used in the generating hypotheses stage - Algorithm Algorithm: a mechanical repetitive procedure for solving a problem - Guarantee a correct solution to the problem - Heuristics Heuristics: strategies for solving a problem or for guiding an investigation - Narrow the range of options we have to consider when trying to solve a problem Types of Problems - Inducing Structure - Try and discover relations among parts of the problem - Transformation - Involve carrying out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal - Problems of arrangement - Involve arranging the parts of the problem in such a way that it satisfies some criterion - Often solved with a burst of insight Insight: the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error - Insight Problems - Problem solution suddenly enters our mind - Immediately realize the solution to the problem is correct - Occurs suddenly - Novel approach to the problem has been taken - Novel interpretation of the problem has been made - Non-insight problem - Solve gradually - Using reasoning skills and a routine set of procedures - Metcalf & Wiebe (1987) - Insight problems - Algebra problems - "Warmth" ratings - Results - Algebra problems - Warmth ratings gradually grew until solution - Insight problems - No increase in warmth ratings until the person solved the problem in a flash of insight Barriers to Problem Solving - Involve assumptions affecting problem solving Fixation: an impediment to problem solving - Perceptual fixation - Involves perceptual (visual/spatial) assumptions about the problem domain that blocks ability to reach a solution - Mental Set - Get stuck on a set of rules to solve the problem - Use them even when the set of rules will prevent the solution or there is an easier solution - Functional Fixation - Getting stuck on a particular use for an object
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