In 1609 the CATHOLIC LEAGUE was formed. Emperor Rudolf, as King of Bohemia, cancelled the religious toleration protestants enjoyed in Bohemia (1609). Thus the stage was prepared for a showdown.
B.) The Spark that ignited the War
In 1618 the Bohemian Estates deposed Emperor Matthias (as King of Bohemia) in the Defenestration of Prague... displayed 300 characters
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They went on to establish a Bohemian nobles' republic following the model of Poland-Lithuania and elected Frederick Count Palatinate King of Bohemia. However, Bohemia held one of the seven electorates within the Holy Roman Empire; to accept the loss of Bohemia, for the House of Habsburg, would also jeopardize her hold on the Imperial crown (for among the 7 electors, three were protestant princes - Brandenburg, Saxony, Palatinate; Bohemia would be the fourth)... displayed next 300 characters
Gustavus Adolphus showed up with the most modern army ever seen and turned the tide in the favor of the protestants again
? The war was long in its run and the tide turned back and forth between the different sides and there was increased and heavy European involvement and alliances from and with other countries
? Eventually peace was achieved with the Peace of Westphalia
? The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved and as a result of the war Germany began fragmented
? Germany was greatly weakened
? Many different countries were destroyed by the long war
? With the end of the 30 years' war came the end of the Wars of Religion
? Religion, although sometimes a factor, wasn't ever again the cause of conflicts in political affairs in Europe, as a whole
? Both the protestant and catholic reformation accomplished things- important things that still affect us today
On August 24 1572, Coligny and 3,000 protestants were slain in Paris in what is known as the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. This action led to the Protestant Resistance theory where the practice of biblical precept of obedient subjection to worldly authority began and Calvin taught that lower magistrates had a duty to oppose tyrannical higher authority...
Once Ferdinand became the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick of Palatinate took over the Bohemian Throne. A fight between Ferdinand and Frederick was inevitable, and the fight between the two was the thirty-year war...
But this merely pushes the question back a step. The truth is that both Roman Catholics and Protestants must, in the end, rely upon their reasoning abilities (to choose their authority) and their interpretive skills (to understand what that authority teaches) in order to determine what they will believe...
A compromise failed to be reached, Edict of January issued promoting toleration in 1562.
The First War 1562-1563 ? Massacre at Vassy -- started the first in a series of wars leading to the death of thousands of innocent people...
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