As early as 1896 Englemann "proposed that AF could be the result of a single atrial focus activating the atria with a rapid rate."4 The typical depolarization rate of the atria is between 400 and 600 beats per minute.2 As a result of the rapid rate the atrial muscles fibrillate leading to an erratic baseline on ecg "without an identifiable P wave... displayed 300 characters
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Reentry "is not a disorder of impulse formation but rather a disorder of impulse propagation, it occurs when an impulse travels around an abnormal circuit repetitively."5 By performing several experiments on animals and humans, Allessie et al. "confirmed multiple wavelet reentry as the cause of AF by multipolar mapping... displayed next 300 characters
Thus, a coordinated contraction is produced. This functional unit is a synctium. The heart has two synctiums, the atrial and ventricular syncytiums. The atrial synctium contracts from superior to inferior, so that the atria send blood to the ventricles...
Bothe atria and ventricles are now relaxed and in a of general diastole which lasts for about 0.4 of a second. Because of a general decrease in pressure in the ventricles there is a tendency for the blood to flow back from the pulmonary artery and the aorta into the ventricles...
During the early diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle, both ventricles relax and fill from their respective atrial sources. The atrio-ventricular valves (the tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle; the mitral valve is between the left atrium and left ventricle) open and allow blood to flow from the atria into the ventricles...
If a client also has history of heart disease, the patient may expeience chest pain.
In sinus bradycardia, the heat rate is less than 60 bpm. However, having 60 bpm may be normal during sleep or people with athletic heart syndrome...
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