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Written by:
Lori L
Date added:
August 25, 2017
Level:
University
Grade:
A
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2 / 348
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Essay content:
Problem solving: overcoming some obstacles in order to answer a question or achieve a goal
Four phases
 Understanding
 Generating hypotheses
 Testing hypotheses
 Checking results
Strategies
 Used in the generating hypotheses stage
 Algorithm
Algorithm: a mechanical repetitive procedure for solving a problem
 Guarantee a correct solution to the problem
 Heuristics
Heuristics: strategies for solving a problem or for guiding an investigation
 Narrow the range of options we have to consider when trying to solve a problem
Types of Problems
 Inducing Structure
 Try and discover relations among parts of the problem
 Transformation
 Involve carrying out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal
 Problems of arrangement
 Involve arranging the parts of the problem in such a way that it satisfies some criterion
 Often solved with a burst of insight
Insight: the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error
 Insight Problems
 Problem solution suddenly enters our mind
 Immediately realize the solution to the problem is correct
 Occurs suddenly
 Novel approach to the problem has been taken
 Novel interpretation of the problem has been made
 Noninsight problem
 Solve gradually
 Using reasoning skills and a routine set of procedures
 Metcalf & Wiebe (1987)
 Insight problems
 Algebra problems
 "Warmth" ratings
 Results
 Algebra problems
 Warmth ratings gradually grew until solution
 Insight problems
 No increase in warmth ratings until the person solved the problem in a flash of insight
Barriers to Problem Solving
 Involve assumptions affecting problem solving
Fixation: an impediment to problem solving
 Perceptual fixation
 Involves perceptual (visual/spatial) assumptions about the problem domain that blocks ability to reach a solution
 Mental Set
 Get stuck on a set of rules to solve the problem
 Use them even when the set of rules will prevent the solution or there is an easier solution
 Functional Fixation
 Getting stuck on a particular use for an object
displayed 300 characters
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Problem solving: overcoming some obstacles in order to answer a question or achieve a goal
Four phases
 Understanding
 Generating hypotheses
 Testing hypotheses
 Checking results
Strategies
 Used in the generating hypotheses stage
 Algorithm
Algorithm: a mechanical repetitive procedure for solving a problem
 Guarantee a correct solution to the problem
 Heuristics
Heuristics: strategies for solving a problem or for guiding an investigation
 Narrow the range of options we have to consider when trying to solve a problem
Types of Problems
 Inducing Structure
 Try and discover relations among parts of the problem
 Transformation
 Involve carrying out a sequence of transformations in order to reach a specific goal
 Problems of arrangement
 Involve arranging the parts of the problem in such a way that it satisfies some criterion
 Often solved with a burst of insight
Insight: the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error
 Insight Problems
 Problem solution suddenly enters our mind
 Immediately realize the solution to the problem is correct
 Occurs suddenly
 Novel approach to the problem has been taken
 Novel interpretation of the problem has been made
 Noninsight problem
 Solve gradually
 Using reasoning skills and a routine set of procedures
 Metcalf & Wiebe (1987)
 Insight problems
 Algebra problems
 "Warmth" ratings
 Results
 Algebra problems
 Warmth ratings gradually grew until solution
 Insight problems
 No increase in warmth ratings until the person solved the problem in a flash of insight
Barriers to Problem Solving
 Involve assumptions affecting problem solving
Fixation: an impediment to problem solving
 Perceptual fixation
 Involves perceptual (visual/spatial) assumptions about the problem domain that blocks ability to reach a solution
 Mental Set
 Get stuck on a set of rules to solve the problem
 Use them even when the set of rules will prevent the solution or there is an easier solution
 Functional Fixation
 Getting stuck on a particular use for an object
displayed 300 characters
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