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Santos W


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June 2, 2011








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The CLEMSON UNIVERSITY ADVISORY BOARD for BIOMATERIALS has formally defined a biomaterial to be "a systematically and pharmacologically inert substance designed for implantation within or incorporation with living systems." By contrast a biological material is a material such as bone matrix or tooth enamel, produced by a biological system...
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Also classified as metals, polymers, ceramics and composites (Table 4). Table 2 Biomaterials in Organs Organ Examples Heart Lung Eye Ear Bone Kidney Bladder Cardiac pacemaker, artificial heart valve Oxygenator machine Contact lens, eye lens replacement Artificial stapes, cosmetic reconstruction of outer ear Bone plate Kidney dialysis machine Catheter Table 3 Biomaterials in Body Systems System Examples Skeletal Muscular Digestive Circulatory Respiratory Integumentary Urinary Nervous Endocrine Reproductive Bone plate, total joint replacements Sutures Sutures Artificial heart valves, blood vessels Oxygenator machine Sutures, burn dressings, artificial skin Catheters, kidney dialysis machine Hydrocephalus drain, cardiac pacemaker Microencapsulated pancreatic islet cells Augmentation mammoplasty, other cosmetic replacements Table 4 Materials for use in body Materials Advantages Disadvantages Examples Polymers Nylon Silicones Teflon Dacron Metals Titanium Stainless steel Co-Cr alloys Gold Ceramics Aluminum oxide Carbon Hydroxyapatite Composites Carbon-carbon Resilient Easy to fabricate Strong, tough Ductile bio compatible, inert Strong in compression Strong, tailor made Not strong Deform with time May degrade May corrode Dense Brittle Difficult to make Not resilient Difficult to make Sutures, blood vessels, hip socket, ear, nose, other soft tissues Joint replacement, bone plates & screws, dental root implants Dental, hip socket Joint implants, heart valves HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The use of biomaterials did not become practical until the advent of aseptic surgical technique in the 1860s...
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